With the advent of computers and the internet in the century, countries’ war, attack and defense techniques have changed. The development of the internet has been used primarily in the military during its historical course. It was used in commerce after the military field and became widespread until personal use. Now every home has one or several computers. With the methods such as obtaining information, attack, damage, destruction, control over networks, wars were fought or attacked on targets. As the technology is very common, easy to reach and cheap, such attacks can be carried out not only by states but also by individuals themselves, which makes it difficult to detect and punish these crimes. The fact that such attacks are committed against a hostile actor or state with the support of the state is a problem that must be solved on an extremely serious and legal basis. As in traditional wars, the lack of clarity of the attacker, the fact that they originate from very different regions, difficult to detect and prove, makes it difficult to provide the definition and sanction of these crimes.
The way of protecting and preserving the information, which ranks first among the changing world values, has also changed. Hackers who infiltrate secret systems by exploiting system vulnerabilities and seize important secrets now work on behalf of the state as cyber warriors. State secrets and the capture of the State defense system by other countries through cyber-attacks have become part of the State defense system.
Cyber Space is an environment consisting of information systems that spread all over the world and space and networks that connect them. In the National Cyber Security Strategy, the term cyberspace is preferred and defined instead of the term cyberspace. The term” cyberspace ” was first used in the early 1980s by William Gibson, known for the science fiction novels he wrote, and the term, which also entered our language, is still in use. The term “cyber environment” has been preferred and defined in the National Cybersecurity strategy instead of the term cyberspace. All kinds of services and activities in the world take place in the cyber environment. The cyber environment offers many services for the benefit of humanity. Public and private organizations use the cyber environment as their service area. The cyber environment, which also contains many useful activities, can be used for malicious purposes.
Cyber Space is an environment consisting of information systems that spread all over the world and space and networks that connect them.
The dependence of military systems and armies on technology and information systems is gradually increasing. Today, many weapons, target detection, command control, and communication systems operate depending on computers and software. The US Department of Defense defines “cyber operations” as the primary objective of military objectives or effects, or employment of cyber capacity, and appears to be used as the term “computer attacks.” The Ministry of Defense defines DoD computer network attacks as: “Corruption, blocking, recession or destruction of the existing information in computer and computer networks through the use of computer networks”.
Hacker is an English word. Hackers are recognized as talented, fond of computer programs. The means of “hack” has brought with it many terms. For instance, hacker, hacking, hacktivism, etc. Hacker is the person who has entered unauthorized access to personal computers or computers and networks belonging to various institutions and organizations. People who are knowledgeable about computer and communication technologies, have skills above the standard in computer programming in the field, and thus develop and use advanced software.
Hackers are capable of breaking into both independent computers and large networks on a regular basis. Once accessed, it can install malicious programs, steal confidential information, or use compromised computers to distribute spam. Hacking means seizing a system’s secret, unreachable information. Entering the system, the hacker can navigate the system without permission, obtain access passwords to the computer, steal the information it finds and make any changes it wants.
Hackers vary among themselves according to who they do their actions on behalf of and the purposes of their actions. Hackers, whose intentions are generally expressed according to their hat colors, have been characterized as well-intentioned or malicious. Hackers are generally categorized as metaphorical which’s means “white hat”, “grey hat” and “black hat”. This kind of terms comes from old spaghetti westerns, the bad guy generally wears a black cowboy hat and the good guy wears a white hat. There are two main factors that determine the type of hacker you encounter: their motivations and breaking the law. “Red hats” see themselves differently than other hackers.
Hackers are generally categorized as metaphorical which’s means “white hat”, “grey hat” and “black hat”.
Social networking sites such as social networks, Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram have become media laid the foundation for the formation of activism. There is no time and space limitation on social networks. In social networks, sharing and discussion are essential. People, by communicating and sharing on the social media platform, form groups where disagree and opposite ideas arise and the same ideas support each other.
Cyber Security Threat Tools and Methods
Zombie Armies (Botnets)
Involuntary Electronic Mail (Spam)
Programs That Record Keyboard Operations (Keyloggers)
Deception (IP Spoofing)
Listening to Network Traffic (Sniffing)
Famous Hackers, Hacker Groups and Hacktivist Movements:
Wikileaks and Bradley Mannig
As the level of awareness of the state, institutions and individuals increased against all these threats in the cyberspace, a number of initiatives have been started to be developed on the basis of international organizations and states. Considering the boundaries of cyberspace beyond the state, the value of international organizations’ activities and interstate cooperation emerges in order to create effective measures and solutions on cybersecurity.
The idea of military response to the attacks against them in the cyber space can be assumed as the reason for counting cyber-attacks as a cause of war. In addition, there are thoughts that suggest that threats from this environment must be met in the same environment. These approaches also bring about discussions of the source, Target and proportional use of force of attacks.
USA, Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Finland, Italy, Turkey, Sweden, Switzerland, Australia, Canada, India, Japan, Spain, Portugal, England, arrangements, including in countries such as Malaysia and Singapore cybersecurity-related stringent sanctions and restrictions Although it is tried to be created; In most countries, there is not enough regulation on this issue.
While there are many states that support terrorist activities against states that they see as rivals or enemies in different ways while appearing against and making statements about terrorism, there are also states that support cyberattacks that harm the rival states in the cyberspace where identities are easily hidden and trace is extremely difficult.
Cybersecurity exercises are very important in terms of exposing the vulnerabilities of systems that appear to be sound in theory and thus ensuring that the necessary measures are taken. Considering the threats that may be experienced in the field of cybersecurity and the damages that these threats may cause, the multiplicity of measures to be taken, the variety and the coordination that is needed are revealed. In addition to all the counted measures, it is considered that no technology can replace a conscious user.
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AHMET SELÇUK, 2020